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Sigma KEE - BiologicallyActiveSubstance
A Substance that is capable of inducing a change in the structure or functioning of an Organism. This Class includes Substances used in the treatment, diagnosis, prevention or analysis of normal and abnormal body function. This Class also includes Substances that occur naturally in the body and are administered therapeutically. Finally, BiologicallyActiveSubstance includes Nutrients, most drugs of abuse, and agents that require special handling because of their toxicity.
Parents Substance An Object in which every part is similar to every other in every relevant respect. More precisely, something is a Substance when it has only arbitrary pieces as parts - any parts have properties which are similar to those of the whole. Note that a Substance may nonetheless have physical properties that vary. For example, the temperature, chemical constitution, density, etc. may change from one part to another. An example would be a body of water.
Children AdenosineTriphosphateAdenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an organic compound and hydrotrope that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells, such as MuscularContraction, nerve impulse propagation, condensate dissolution, and chemical synthesis. Found in all known forms of life, ATP is often referred to as the 'molecular unit of currency' of intracellular energy transfer. When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts either to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Other processes regenerate ATP so that the human body recycles its own body weight equivalent in ATP each day. It is also a precursor to DNAMolecule and RNAMolecule, and is used as a coenzyme. [from Wikipedia]
 AlkaloidA ChemicalBase found in Plants that has physiological and psychological effects.
 AntacidAn antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach. Some antacids have been used in the treatment of constipation and diarrhea. Currently marketed antacids contain salts of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, or sodium. Some preparations contain a combination of two salts, such as magnesium carbonate and aluminum hydroxide.[from Wikipedia]
 AntibioticA BiologicallyActiveSubstance than can kill instances of Bacterium.
 AntidepressantA medicine to combat Depression.
 AntidiureticAn antidiuretic, such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of water in urine.[from Wikipedia]
 AntigenAny BiologicallyActiveSubstance that has the capacity to stimulate the production of Antibodies.
 AntihistamineAntihistamines are drugs which treat hay fever and other allergies. Typically, people take antihistamines as an inexpensive, not patented (generic), drug that can be bought without a prescription and relieves from nasal congestion, sneezing, or hives caused by pollen, dust mites, or animal allergy with few side effects. Antihistamines are usually for short-term treatment. Chronic allergies increase the risk of health problems which antihistamines might not treat, including asthma, sinusitis, and lower respiratory tract infection. [from Wikipedia]
 AntiparasiticA BiologicallyActiveSubstance than can kill instances of Parasite.
 AtropineAn anticholinergic agent.
 BiochemicalAgentA BiologicalAgent or a ChemicalAgent.
 CarnitineCarnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most Mammals, Plants, and some Bacteria. In support of energy metabolism, carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria to be oxidized for energy production, and also participates in removing products of metabolism from cells. Given its key metabolic roles, carnitine is concentrated in tissues like skeletal and cardiac muscle that metabolize fatty acids as an energy source. Healthy individuals, including strict vegetarians, synthesize enough L-carnitine in vivo to not require supplementation.[from Wikipedia]
 ChemicalAgentSynthetic compounds that are not an analogue of anything occurring naturally and that can result in serious burns, paralysis, and death to Organisms.
 ControlledSubstanceControlledSubstance is the subclass of BiologicallyActiveSubstances whose distribution and use is controlled by government regulation.
 CSGas2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (chemical formula: C10H5ClN2) is a substance that is used as a riot control agent and is usually claimed to be non-lethal by the forces who use it. CS was discovered by two Americans, Ben Carson and Roger Staughton in 1928, the first letters of the scientists' surname giving us the name of the substance, 'CS' [4]. It was developed and tested secretly at Porton Down in Wiltshire, England. Apparently this testing occurred in the 1950s and 1960s when CS was used firstly on animals, then subsequently on British Army servicemen volunteers. Notably CS has a limited effect on animals due to under-developed tear-ducts and protection by fur. [5]. (from Wikipedia). Known as tear or pepper gas, often used by paramilitary and police to control unruly crowds, the gas can cause temporary blindness and tearing.
 DepressantAny BiologicallyActiveSubstance which has the effect of depressing the central nervous system, i.e. decreasing function or activity in the Brain or SpinalCord.
 DimercaprolA chelating agent often used to treat Lewisite, as well as Lead Poisoning.
 DiureticA diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine. This includes forced diuresis. A diuretic tablet is sometimes colloquially called a water tablet. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from the body, through the kidneys. There exist several classes of diuretic, and each works in a distinct way. Alternatively, an antidiuretic, such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of water in urine.[from Wikipedia]
 FentanylFentanyl is a highly potent synthetic piperidine opioid drug primarily used as an analgesic. Because fentanyl is 50 to 100 times more potent than Morphine, its primary clinical utility is in Pain management for Cancer patients and those recovering from painful surgical operations. Fentanyl is also used as a sedative. Depending on the method of delivery, fentanyl can be very fast acting and ingesting a relatively small quantity can cause overdose. Fentanyl works by activating mu-opioid receptors. [from Wikipedia]
 HormoneIn Animals, a chemical secreted by an endocrine gland whose products are released into the circulating fluid. Plant hormones or synthetic hormones which are used only to alter or control various physiologic processes, e.g., reproductive control agents, are assigned to the Class BiologicallyActiveSubstance. Hormones act as chemical messengers and regulate various physiologic processes such as growth, reproduction, metabolism, etc. They usually fall into two broad categories, viz. steroid hormones and peptide hormones.
 MedicineAny BiologicallyActiveSubstance which has a therapeutic effect under certain conditions.
 MoodStabilizerA mood stabilizer is a psychiatric medication used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, such as bipolar disorder and the bipolar type of schizoaffective disorder. Mood stabilizers are best known for the treatment of bipolar disorder, preventing mood shifts to mania (or hypomania) and depression. Mood stabilizers are also used in schizoaffective disorder when it is the bipolar type. The term 'mood stabilizer' does not describe a mechanism, but rather an effect. More precise terminology based on pharmacology is used to further classify these agents.[from Wikipedia]
 MorphineMorphine is a strong opiate that is found naturally in Opium, a dark brown resin produced by drying the latex of opium poppies (Papaver somniferum). It is mainly used as a Pain medication, and is also commonly used recreationally, or to make other illicit opioids. There are numerous methods used to administer morphine: oral; sublingual; via inhalation; injection into a Muscle, injection under the Skin, or injection into the SpinalCord area; transdermal; or via rectal suppository. It acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to induce analgesia and alter perception and emotional response to pain. Physical and psychological dependence and tolerance may develop with repeated administration. It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain and is frequently used for pain from HeartAttack, kidney stones, and during labor. Its maximum effect is reached after about 20 minutes when administered intravenously and 60 minutes when administered by Mouth, while the duration of its effect is 3–7 hours.[from Wikipedia]
 NutrientA BiologicallyActiveSubstance required by an Organism. It is generally ingested as food, and it is of primary interest because of its role in the biologic functioning of the Organism.
 OpiumA substance harvested from the seed capsules of the opium poppy that contains various powerful alkaloids.
 PoisonAny BiologicallyActiveSubstance that causes Damaging to an Organism when Ingesting it.
 PyrethrumPyrethrum is the subclass of BiologicallyActiveSubstance consisting of insecticidal derivations from the flower heads of Chrysanthemums.
 PyridostigmineBromideA substance that has been shown to protect lower primates from the lethal effects of Soman. Although there is no proof that it does the same for humans, it was administered to soldiers in the Gulf War.
 SteroidA class of OrganicCompounds having the same basic chemical structure and having significant physiological effects.
 StimulantAny BiologicallyActiveSubstance which has the effect of stimulating the central nervous system, i.e. increasing function or activity in the Brain or SpinalCord.
 ThyroxineA Hormone that is secreted by the ThyroidGland but can also be produced synthetically.
 ToxinBiologicalAgents that are a toxic BiologicallyActiveSubstance produced by an Organism or that are the synthetic analogue of a toxic BiologicallyActiveSubstance produced by an Organism.

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