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Sigma KEE - MilitaryOperation
A MilitaryOperation is distinguished from the broader class of MilitaryProcess in that it is planned in advance.
Parents MilitaryProcess Process that is carried out by a military organization. Note that this class covers Processes, e.g. military operations, that are the result of careful planning, as well as those which are unscripted.
Children CivilAffairsActivityActivities performed or supported by civil affairs that (1) enhance the relationship between military forces and civil authorities in areas where military forces are present, and (2) involve application of civil affairs functional specialty skills, in areas normally the responsibility of civil government, to enhance conduct of civil-military operations. See also civil affairs, civil-military operations.
 CounterOperationAll measures to prevent operations from the enemy.
 DirectActionActivityThe class of subProcesses of a DirectAction.
 FoodDistributionOperationMilitary operations conducted to distribute food to the friendly force. (from FM 100-40)
 ForeignInternalDefenseThese are operations that involve participation by civilian and military agencies of a government in any of the action programs taken by another government or other designated organization, to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency. Both conventional and SOF units have a role and capability to conduct FID missions. SOF's primary role in this interagency activity is to assess, train, advise, and assist HN military and paramilitary forces with the tasks that require their unique capabilities. The goal is to enable these forces to maintain the HN's internal stability, to counter subversion and violence in their country, and to address the causes of instability. Internal stability forms the shield behind which a nation-building campaign can succeed. Successful FID missions can lead to strategic successes for US foreign policy. FID activities include the following: (1) HN Military Assistance. These are operations that train HN military individuals and units in tactical employment, sustainment, and integration of land, air, and maritime skills, provide advice and assistance to military leaders, and provide training on tactics, techniques, and procedures required to protect the HN from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency, and develop indigenous individual, leader, and organizational skills. (2) Population Security. These are operations that strengthen population security by providing supervision of tactical operations conducted by HN military units to neutralize and destroy insurgent threats, isolate insurgents from the civil population, and protect the civil population. As a subset of FID, designated SOF units may also train select HN forces to perform counterterrorist missions. For more details on FID, see JP 3-07.1, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Foreign Internal Defense (FID).
 InformationOperationActions taken to affect adversary information and information systems while defending one's own information and information systems. Also called IO. See also defensive information operations, information, offensive information operations, operation.
 JointOperationA general term to describe military actions conducted by joint forces or by Service forces in relationships (e.g., support, coordinating authority) which, of themselves, do not create joint forces.
 MilitaryAssaultclose fighting during the culmination of a military attack.
 OperationPlanningThe Process of _planning_ a military operation. This involves military personell. The result of the planning process is a an _OperationPlan_
 PsychologicalOperationThese are planned operations that convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of PSYOP is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behaviors favorable to the JFC's objectives. Planning and employment considerations include: (1) Force Multiplier. PSYOP are among the most effective nonlethal weapons available to a commander. It can reduce casualties on both sides by reducing the morale and combat effectiveness of the adversary, creating dissent and disaffection within their ranks, encouraging surrenders or defections, promoting disobedience, or inducing a lack of support for a hostile regime within a civilian populace. (2) Combatant Commander Responsibilities. Each geographic combatant commander is responsible for conducting PSYOP programs in peacetime. Such efforts are designed to create a favorable image of the friendly government, of the United States, and of the Armed Forces of the United States, encourage support for democratic institutions, human rights, regional stability, and counterdrug activities, and assist a HN in explaining and publicizing humanitarian and civic action projects to local citizens. When used as part of an integrated theater strategy or strategic information operation, PSYOP can reduce the probability of conflict, reduce the damage if conflict does occur, and speed the transition to normality in the postconflict phase. (3) PSYOP Applications. Taking advantage of their language and culture skills, in-depth knowledge of the region, and understanding of interagency operations, SOF provide the geographic combatant commander with a broad range of PSYOP capabilities to be employed independently or in support of a larger theater campaign. These capabilities include the following: (a) Developing, Producing, Distributing, and Disseminating. PSYOP units design, develop, and produce programs. They distribute and disseminate products that support tactical, operational, and strategic goals. (b) Coordinating and Directing PSYOP Programs. PSYOP support national policy goals with programs developed for and approved by higher authority. PSYOP personnel coordinate with the chain of command to ensure the credibility and effectiveness of the program. (c) Producing PSYOP Studies and Estimates. PSYOP personnel produce and maintain studies and estimates for the commander. They advise supported commanders on the expected psychological impacts of their courses of action (COAs). They identify the adversary PSYOP effort and the susceptibilities of friendly forces. (d) Support Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW), Civilian Internee (CI), and Dislocated Civilian (DC) Operations. PSYOP support can dispel rumors, create dialogue and pacify or indoctrinate EPWs, CIs, or DCs to minimize violence, facilitate efficient camp operations, and ensure safe and humane conditions persist. (e) Providing Support to HN Assistance Operations. During CMO, PSYOP personnel may work with CA or conventional units to promote civic action projects either by or in support of the host government. (f) Employ Tactical PSYOP. Tactical PSYOP forces, with augmentation, are capable of providing all functions of PSYOP, on a limited scale, to component commands within a designated area of operations (AO). (4) PSYOP Support to Information Operations. PSYOP are a core capability of IO. PSYOP activities are integrated into IO plans and synchronized with IO objectives and themes. Mission-type orders and decentralized execution can give PSYOP forces considerable autonomy to conduct tactical operations within established IO guidance. For additional information on PSYOP, see JP 3-53, Doctrine for Joint Psychological Operations.
 ReconnaissanceOperationA mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy, or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area. Also called RECON.
 SecurityOperationMilitary operations conducted to protect the friendly force by providing early and accurate warning of enemy operations, to provide the force being protected with time and maneuver space within which to react to the enemy, and to develop the situation to allow the commander to effectively use the protected force. Security operations orient on the force or facility to be protected, rather than on the enemy. (from FM 100-40).
 SpecialOperationOperations conducted in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments to achieve military, diplomatic, informational, and/or economic objectives employing military capabilities for which there is no broad conventional force requirement. These operations often require covert, clandestine, or low visibility capabilities. Special operations are applicable across the range of military operations. They can be conducted independently or in conjunction with operations of conventional forces or other government agencies and may include operations through, with, or by indigenous or surrogate forces. Special operations differ from conventional operations in degree of physical and political risk, operational techniques, mode of employment, independence from friendly support, and dependence on detailed operational intelligence and indigenous assets. Also called SO.

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