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Sigma KEE - ChronicObstructivePulmonaryDisease
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of progressive lung disease that is preventable and treatable. COPD is characterized by long-term respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and a cough which may or may not produce mucus. COPD progressively worsens with everyday activities such as walking or dressing becoming difficult. The two most common conditions of COPD are Emphysema and ChronicBronchitis, and they have been the two classic COPD phenotypes. Emphysema is just one of the structural abnormalities that can limit airflow and can exist without airflow limitation in a significant number of people. Chronic bronchitis does not always result in airflow limitation but in young adults who smoke the risk of developing COPD is high. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis remain the predominant phenotypes of COPD but there is often overlap between them, and a number of other phenotypes have also been described. The most common cause of COPD is tobacco smoking. Other risk factors include indoor and outdoor pollution, exposure to occupational irritant substances such as dust from grains, and cadmium dust or fumes, and genetics. In developing countries, common sources of indoor air pollution are the use of coal, and biomass such as wood and dry dung as fuel for cooking and heating. Most people living in European cities are exposed to damaging levels of air pollution. The diagnosis is based on poor airflow as measured by spirometry. [from Wikipedia
Children BronchitisBronchitis is inflammation of the BronchialDucts (large and medium-sized airways) in the Lungs that causes coughing. Symptoms include coughing up sputum, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Bronchitis can be AcuteBronchitis or ChronicBronchitis.[from Wikipedia]
 EmphysemaEmphysema, or pulmonary emphysema, is a lower respiratory tract disease, characterised by air-filled cavities or spaces (pneumatoses) in the Lung, that can vary in size and may be very large. The spaces are caused by the breakdown of the walls of the alveoli and they replace the spongy lung parenchyma. This reduces the total alveolar surface available for gas exchange leading to a reduction in oxygen supply for the Blood. Emphysema usually affects the middle aged or older population because it takes time to develop with the effects of Smoking, and other risk factors. [from Wikipedia]
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 maladie ou syndromeA BiologicalAttribute which qualifies something that alters or interferes with a normal process, state or activity of an Organism. It is usually characterized by the abnormal functioning of one or more of the host's systems, parts, or Organs.
 entit�The universal class of individuals. This is the root node of the ontology.
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Belongs to Class entit�

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