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Sigma KEE - Medicine
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Any BiologicallyActiveSubstance which has a therapeutic effect under certain conditions.
Parents BiologicallyActiveSubstance A Substance that is capable of inducing a change in the structure or functioning of an Organism. This Class includes Substances used in the treatment, diagnosis, prevention or analysis of normal and abnormal body function. This Class also includes Substances that occur naturally in the body and are administered therapeutically. Finally, BiologicallyActiveSubstance includes Nutrients, most drugs of abuse, and agents that require special handling because of their toxicity.
Children AdalimumabAdalimumab, is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug and monoclonal antibody that works by inactivating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). It is sold under the brand name Humira, among others. It is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, CrohnsDisease, UlcerativeColitis, psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, uveitis, and juvenile idiopathic Arthritis. Use is generally only recommended in people who have not responded to other treatments. It is administered by injection under the skin. Common side effects include upper respiratory tract infections, pain at the site of injection, rash, and headache. Other side effects may include serious infections, cancer, anaphylaxis, reactivation of hepatitis B, multiple sclerosis, heart failure, liver failure, and aplastic anemia. Use during pregnancy is not recommended, but some sources show use during breastfeeding may be safe.[from Wikipedia]
 AdderallAdderall and Mydayis are trade names for a combination drug containing four salts of Amphetamine. The mixture is composed of equal parts racemic amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, which produces a (3:1) ratio between dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine, the two enantiomers of amphetamine. Both enantiomers are timulants, but differ enough to give Adderall an effects profile distinct from those of racemic amphetamine or dextroamphetamine, which are marketed as Evekeo and Dexedrine/Zenzedi, respectively. Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also used as an athletic performance enhancer, cognitive enhancer, appetite suppressant, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. It is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class.[from Wikipedia]
 AnesthesiaThe BiologicallyActiveSubstance used in Anesthetizing.
 AnticoagulantAnticoagulants, commonly known as Blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the Clotting time. Some of them occur naturally in blood-eating animals such as Leeches and Mosquitoes, where they help keep the bite area unclotted long enough for the animal to obtain some blood. As a class of medications, anticoagulants are used in therapy for thrombotic disorders. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) are taken by many people in pill or tablet form, and various intravenous anticoagulant dosage forms are used in HospitalOrganizations. Some anticoagulants are used in medical equipment, such as sample tubes, blood transfusion bags, heart-lung machines, and dialysis equipment. One of the first anticoagulants, Warfarin, was initially approved as a rodenticide. [from Wikipedia]
 AntiInflammatoryA Medicine that is intended to control Inflammation.
 AntipsychoticA Medicine which hasPurpose to reduce or eliminate Psychosis.
 AntiseizureA Medicine which hasPurpose to reduce or eliminate Seizure.
 AntiViralMedicineA Medcine that is intended for use in a TherapeuticProcess, treating a ViralDisease.
 BetaBlockerBeta blockers (beta-blockers, β-blockers, etc.) are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention). They are also widely used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), although they are no longer the first choice for initial treatment of most patients.[from Wikipedia]
 CrisaboroleCrisaborole, sold under the brand name Eucrisa among others, is a nonsteroidal topical medication used for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (eczema) in adults and children. The most common side effects are reactions at the application site (including burning or stinging).[from Wikipedia]
 DesloratadineDesloratadine (trade name Clarinex and Aerius) is a tricyclic H1 antagonist that is used to treat allergies. It is an active metabolite of Loratadine. Desloratadine is used to treat AllergicRhinitis, nasal congestion and chronic idiopathic urticaria (Hives). It is the major metabolite of loratadine and the two drugs are similar in safety and effectiveness. Desloratadine is available in many dosage forms and under many trade names worldwide. The most common side-effects are fatigue, dry mouth, and headache.[from Wikipedia]
 ImmunosuppressiveImmunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions. In general, deliberately induced immunosuppression is performed to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant. Additionally, it is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant, or for the treatment of auto-immune diseases such as systemic Lupus erythematosus, RheumatoidArthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, or CrohnsDisease. This is typically done using medications, but may involve surgery (splenectomy), plasmapheresis, or radiation. A person who is undergoing immunosuppression, or whose immune system is weak for some other reasons (chemotherapy or HIV), is said to be immunocompromised.[from Wikipedia]
 IvabradineIvabradine, sold under the brand name Procoralan among others, is a medication used for the symptomatic management of stable heart-related chest pain and heart failure not fully managed by beta blockers. [from Wikipedia]
 LamotrigineLamotrigine, sold as the brand name Lamictal among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and to delay or prevent the recurrence of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder. For epilepsy, this includes focal seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, and seizures in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. In bipolar disorder, lamotrigine has not been shown to reliably treat acute depression; but for patients with bipolar disorder who are not currently symptomatic, it appears to be effective in reducing the risk of future episodes of depression. Common side effects include nausea, sleepiness, headache, vomiting, trouble with coordination, and rash. Serious side effects include lack of red blood cells, increased risk of suicide, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, and allergic reactions. Concerns exist that use during pregnancy or breastfeeding may result in harm. Lamotrigine is a phenyltriazine, making it chemically different from other anticonvulsants. Its mechanism of action is not clear, but it appears to inhibit release of excitatory neurotransmitters via voltage-sensitive sodium channels in neurons. Lamotrigine was first marketed in the United Kingdom in 1991, and approved for use in the United States in 1994. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. In 2018, it was the 68th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 11 million prescriptions.[from Wikipedia]
 LisdexamfetamineLisdexamfetamine, sold under the brand name Vyvanse among others, is a medication that is a derivative of Amphetamine. It is mainly used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in people over the age of five as well as moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder in adults. Lisdexamfetamine is taken by mouth. In the UnitedKingdom, it is usually less preferred than methylphenidate. Its effects generally begin within 2 hours and last for up to 14 hours. [from Wikipedia]
 MorphineMorphine is a strong opiate that is found naturally in Opium, a dark brown resin produced by drying the latex of opium poppies (Papaver somniferum). It is mainly used as a Pain medication, and is also commonly used recreationally, or to make other illicit opioids. There are numerous methods used to administer morphine: oral; sublingual; via inhalation; injection into a Muscle, injection under the Skin, or injection into the SpinalCord area; transdermal; or via rectal suppository. It acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to induce analgesia and alter perception and emotional response to pain. Physical and psychological dependence and tolerance may develop with repeated administration. It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain and is frequently used for pain from HeartAttack, kidney stones, and during labor. Its maximum effect is reached after about 20 minutes when administered intravenously and 60 minutes when administered by Mouth, while the duration of its effect is 3–7 hours.[from Wikipedia]
 NizatidineNizatidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and is commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease. It was patented in 1980 and approved for medical use in 1988. It was developed by Eli Lilly. Brand names include Tazac and Axid. [from Wikipedia]
 OndansetronOndansetron, sold under the brand name Zofran among others, is a medication used to prevent Nausea and Vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. It is also effective for treating gastroenteritis. It is ineffective for treating vomiting caused by motion sickness. It can be given by Mouth or by injection into a Muscle or into a Vein. Common side effects include Diarrhea, constipation, Headache, sleepiness, and itchiness. [from Wikipedia]
 PillA Medicine in Solid form, intended to be taken orally.
 ProtonPumpInhibitorProton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of Medicine that cause a profound and prolonged reduction of stomach acid production. They do so by irreversibly inhibiting the stomach's H+/K+ ATPase proton pump. They are the most potent inhibitors of acid secretion available. Proton-pump inhibitors have largely superseded the H2-receptor antagonists, a group of medications with similar effects but a different mode of action. PPIs are among the most widely sold medications in the world. The class of proton-pump inhibitor medications is on the WorldHealthOrganization's List of Essential Medicines. Omeprazole is the specific listed example.[from Wikipedia]
 SingulairMontelukast, sold under the brand name Singulair among others, is a medication used in the maintenance treatment of asthma. It is generally less preferred for this use than inhaled corticosteroids. It is not useful for acute asthma attacks. Other uses include allergic rhinitis and hives of long duration. For allergic rhinitis it is a second-line treatment. Common side effects include abdominal pain, cough, and headache. Severe side effects may include allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis and eosinophilia. Use in pregnancy appears to be safe. Montelukast is in the leukotriene receptor antagonist family of medications. It works by blocking the action of leukotriene D4 in the lungs resulting in decreased inflammation and relaxation of smooth muscle.[from Wikipedia]
 SulfasalazineSulfasalazine (SSZ), sold under the trade name Azulfidine among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. It is considered by some to be a first-line treatment in rheumatoid arthritis. It is taken by mouth. Significant side effects occur in about 25% of people. Commonly these include loss of appetite, nausea, headache, and rash. Severe side effects include bone marrow suppression, liver problems, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, and kidney problems. It should not be used in people allergic to aspirin or sulfonamide. Use during pregnancy appears to be safe for the baby. Sulfasalazine is in the disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) family of medications. It is unclear exactly how it works.[from Wikipedia]
 激素TSHThyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, or abbreviated TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body. It is a glycoprotein hormone produced by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland, which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid.[from Wikipedia]
 TranexamicAcidTranexamic acid (TXA) is a medication used to treat or prevent excessive Blood loss from major trauma, postpartum Bleeding, Surgery, Tooth removal, nosebleeds, and heavy menstruation. It is also used for hereditary angioedema. It is taken either orally or by injection into a Vein. It serves as an antifibrinolytic. Antifibrinolytics are a class of medication that are inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic. Tranexamic acid is a synthetic analog of the amino acid lysine. [from Wikipedia]
 UpadacitinibUpadacitinib, sold under the brand name Rinvoq, is a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor medication for the treatment of moderately to severely active RheumatoidArthritis in adults where methotrexate (a drug used to treat active arthritis) did not work well or could not be tolerated. It was developed by the biotech company AbbVie. Common side effects include upper respiratory tract infections (common cold, sinus infections), Nausea, Cough, and Fever.[from Wikipedia]
 VyvanseLisdexamfetamine, sold under the brand name Vyvanse among others, is a medication that is a derivative of amphetamine. It is mainly used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in people over the age of five as well as moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder in adults. Lisdexamfetamine is taken by mouth. In the United Kingdom, it is usually less preferred than methylphenidate. Its effects generally begin within 2 hours and last for up to 14 hours. Common side effects of lisdexamfetamine include loss of appetite, anxiety, diarrhea, trouble sleeping, irritability, and nausea. Rare but serious side effects include mania, sudden cardiac death in those with underlying heart problems, and psychosis. It has a high potential for substance abuse per the DEA. Serotonin syndrome may occur if used with certain other medications. Its use during pregnancy may result in harm to the baby and use during breastfeeding is not recommended by the manufacturer. Lisdexamfetamine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that works after being converted by the body into dextroamphetamine. Chemically, lisdexamfetamine is composed of the amino acid L-lysine, attached to dextroamphetamine. Lisdexamfetamine was approved for medical use in the United States in 2007. In 2018, it was the 82nd most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 10 million prescriptions. It is a Schedule II controlled substance in the United Kingdom and a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States.[from Wikipedia]

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