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Sigma KEE - ChronicObstructivePulmonaryDisease

appearance as argument number 1

(documentation ChronicObstructivePulmonaryDisease EnglishLanguage "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of progressive lung disease that is preventable and treatable. COPD is characterized by long-term respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and a cough which may or may not produce mucus. COPD progressively worsens with everyday activities such as walking or dressing becoming difficult. The two most common conditions of COPD are Emphysema and ChronicBronchitis, and they have been the two classic COPD phenotypes. Emphysema is just one of the structural abnormalities that can limit airflow and can exist without airflow limitation in a significant number of people. Chronic bronchitis does not always result in airflow limitation but in young adults who smoke the risk of developing COPD is high. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis remain the predominant phenotypes of COPD but there is often overlap between them, and a number of other phenotypes have also been described. The most common cause of COPD is tobacco smoking. Other risk factors include indoor and outdoor pollution, exposure to occupational irritant substances such as dust from grains, and cadmium dust or fumes, and genetics. In developing countries, common sources of indoor air pollution are the use of coal, and biomass such as wood and dry dung as fuel for cooking and heating. Most people living in European cities are exposed to damaging levels of air pollution. The diagnosis is based on poor airflow as measured by spirometry. [from Wikipedia") Mid-level-ontology.kif 5614-5637
(instance ChronicObstructivePulmonaryDisease DiseaseOrSyndrome) Mid-level-ontology.kif 5613-5613

appearance as argument number 2

(subAttribute Bronchitis ChronicObstructivePulmonaryDisease) Mid-level-ontology.kif 5668-5668
(subAttribute Emphysema ChronicObstructivePulmonaryDisease) Mid-level-ontology.kif 5646-5646
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ChronicObstructivePulmonaryDisease "COPD") Mid-level-ontology.kif 5639-5639
(termFormat EnglishLanguage ChronicObstructivePulmonaryDisease "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease") Mid-level-ontology.kif 5638-5638


    (attribute ?H ChronicObstructivePulmonaryDisease)
    (attribute ?H
        (ImpairmentFn Breathing)))
Mid-level-ontology.kif 5641-5644

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