The universal class of individuals. This is the root node of the ontology.
||属性||Qualities which we cannot or choose not to reify into subclasses of.|
| ||模型||An abstract object that models certain aspect of a physical object, is subject to abstraction and idealization.|
| ||流程任务||A function to be performed.|
| ||命题||Propositions are Abstract entities that express a complete thought or a set of such thoughts. As an example, the formula '(instance Yojo Cat)' expresses the Proposition that the entity named Yojo is an element of the Class of Cats. Note that propositions are not restricted to the content expressed by individual sentences of a Language. They may encompass the content expressed by theories, books, and even whole libraries. It is important to distinguish Propositions from the ContentBearingObjects that express them. A Proposition is a piece of information, e.g. that the cat is on the mat, but a ContentBearingObject is an Object that represents this information. A Proposition is an abstraction that may have multiple representations: strings, sounds, icons, etc. For example, the Proposition that the cat is on the mat is represented here as a string of graphical characters displayed on a monitor and/or printed on paper, but it can be represented by a sequence of sounds or by some non-latin alphabet or by some cryptographic form.|
| ||数量||Any specification of how many or how much of something there is. Accordingly, there are two subclasses of Quantity: Number (how many) and PhysicalQuantity (how much).|
| ||关系||The Class of relations. There are three kinds of Relation: Predicate, Function, and List. Predicates and Functions both denote sets of ordered n-tuples. The difference between these two Classes is that Predicates cover formula-forming operators, while Functions cover term-forming operators. A List, on the other hand, is a particular ordered n-tuple.|
| ||集或类||The SetOrClass of Sets and Classes, i.e. any instance of Abstract that has elements or instances.|